Tangier is a city in northern Morocco. It lies on the North African coast at the western entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar where the Mediterranean meets the Atlantic Ocean off Cap Spartel. According to Berber mythology, Tangier was built by the son of Tinjis, named Sufax. Tinjis was the wife of the Berber hero Antaios. There are other stories of Tangier being founded by Hercules. The cave or grotto of Hercules is only a few miles from the city. This cave is a major tourist attraction because of its association with Greek mythology. It is believed that Hercules slept there before attempting one of his 12 labours. Tangier was an important city for the Berbers. Founded by Carthaginian colonists in the early 5th century BC, the settlement of Tingis came under Roman rule as the capital of Mauritania Tingitana of Hispania. In the 5th century Vandals conquered and occupied "Tingi" and from here swept across North Africa.
Barcelona is the capital of Catalonia in northeast Spain. The first human settlements date back to Neolithic times. However, the city proper was founded by the Romans who established a colony there at the end of the 1st century BC. The ancient Roman city of Barcino had a population of about a 1000 and was bounded by a defensive wall, the remains of which can still be seen in the old town. From the 15th to 18th centuries the city entered a period of decline. Over these centuries, Barcelona struggled to maintain its economic and political independence. This struggle ended in 1714, when the city fell to the Bourbon troops and rights and privileges in Catalonia were suppressed. In the mid-19th century, an industrial revolution took place in the region, and textile manufacturing became a key industry. At the beginning of the 20th century, Barcelona embarked on a process of widespread urban renewal and built the Eixample district.